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George Michael Miller



Aids in puncturing or piercing materials such as leather, fabric, or wood, facilitating sewing, stitching, or marking.


Tool used for driving nails, forging metal, and other tasks.


Durable material made from animal hides, used in clothing, footwear, and upholstery.


Preserves and enhances the appearance of footwear, extending its lifespan and maintaining a polished, professional look.

Shoe Polish

Buckle: Fastens straps or belts securely, providing adjustable closures.


Laces: Cords or strings used for tying or fastening shoes or garments.


Narrow strips of fabric used for decoration, tying, or embellishment.


Footwear worn for protection and comfort.


Eyelet: Small hole or metal ring used to reinforce or decorate a hole in fabric or leather.


Lasts: Mold or form shaped like a human foot, used by shoemakers to construct footwear.


Shoe Horn: Helps users slide their feet into shoes without damaging the footwear.

Shoe Horn

Thin strand of material used for sewing or weaving.


A shoemaker is a craftsman who designs, constructs, and repairs shoes, boots, and other footwear. They work with a variety of materials such as leather, suede, and synthetic fabrics to create custom-fit shoes tailored to individual preferences. Shoemakers use specialized tools and techniques to ensure the quality and durability of their products.

Colonists can thank shoemakers for crafting and repairing shoes and boots, ensuring the comfort, protection, and durability of footwear essential for everyday activities, work, and travel in colonial America.

Tools of the Trade

Wood (oak, pine)
Metal hoops (iron or steel)
Adhesives (pitch, tar)
Tools (adze, drawknife, cooper's hammer, hoop driver)

Sights, Smells, Sounds

Sights: Workbenches lined with lasts and leather, stacks of leather hides and rolls of fabric, a shoemaker cutting and stitching leather, shelves of finished shoes and boots.

Smells: The rich scent of leather, the earthy aroma of shoe polish and dye, the faint tang of glue and adhesive.

Sounds: The thud of hammers on leather, the rustle of fabric being cut, the soft tap of shoemaker's tools, the occasional tap of shoes being tried on.


Williamsburg Shoe Co., managed by Thomas Adams, is a shoemaking workshop located in Williamsburg, Virginia, specializing in the production of colonial-style footwear for men, women, and children.

Charleston Shoemakers Guild, owned by Mary Smith, is a collective of skilled shoemakers based in Charleston, South Carolina, known for their quality craftsmanship and bespoke footwear.

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